The prophet EZEKIEL
This book has always been the name of its author, Ezekiel ( Ez 1:3 # , # Ez 24:24 ), which is not mentioned elsewhere in Scripture. Its name means "fortified by God" and corresponds to his prophetic calling (# Ez 3:8-9 ) . Ezekiel used visions, prophecies , parables , signs and symbols to proclaim and demonstrate the message that God spoke to his people in exile .
Author and date
If the " thirtieth year" of 1:1 is related to the age of Ezekiel , when he was 25 years old when he was deported , and 30 years when he was called to the ministry. It was thirty years ago that the priests began their service, so it was a pivotal year for him. His ministry began in 593/592 BC. BC and lasted at least 22 years, until 571/570 BC. BC (see # Ez 29:17 ) . Contemporary with Jeremiah ( his eldest about 20 years), he mentioned Daniel (who was the same age as him, # Ez 14:14 # Ez 2:20 p.m. , # Ez 28:3 ) already recognized as a prophet. Ezekiel was both priest and prophet (# Ez 1:3 ) , as Jeremiah (# Jer 1:1) and Zechariah (cf. 1:1 with # # Za Born 12:16 ) . By his priestly background , he showed a good understanding of issues related to the temple and a great interest in them. God gave him a well developed treatment of the subject ( Ezekiel 8:1-11:25 # , # Eze 40:1-47:12 ) .
Ezekiel and his wife (mentioned in # Ez 24:15-27 ) were among the 10,000 Jews deported to Babylon in 597 BC. BC ( # 2R 24:11-18 ) . They lived in Tel- Abib (# Ez 3:15 ) by the river Chebar , probably southeast of Babylon. Ezekiel spoke of the death of his wife in exile (# Ez 24:18 ) , but the book does not mention the death of the Prophet , the rabbinical tradition attributed to a Jewish prince whom he reproached his idolatry to 560 BC . AD
The author received his prophetic call in 593 BC. BC ( # Ez 1:2 ) to Babylon ("the land of the Chaldeans ") , for the "fifth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king " deported in 597 BC. BC Ezekiel time many of his prophecies that year (# Ez 8:1 # Ez 20:1 ; # Ez 24:1 ; # Ez 26:1 ; # Ez 29:1 , Ez # 30 20 , # Ez 31:1 ; # Ez 32:1 , Ez 32:17 # , # Ez 33:21 ; # Ez 40:1) . In # Ez 40:1 , he mentions the fourteenth year after the fall of Jerusalem ( which occurred in 586 BC.) . The last dated oracle of Ezekiel was delivered in 571/570 BC. BC ( # Ez 29:17 ) .
The prophecies of c. # Ezekiel 1:1-28 : @ follow a chronological order. In # Ez 29:1 , the prophet has a year before # Ez 26:1 , 30:1 but when (cf. Ez 31:1 # , # Eze 32:1 , # Ez 32:17 ) , he approaches again a strict chronological order.
Context and background
A look at history reveals that Israel was a united kingdom for over 110 years (circa 1043-931 BC.) , Or during the reigns of Saul , David and Solomon. A schism intervened in 931 , so that there was once two separate entities : Judah (south) and Israel (north) , and up to 722/721 BC. AD , when the northern kingdom fell into the hands of the Assyrians. Judah , meanwhile , continued for 135 years yet , before falling under the attacks made by the Babylonians in 605-586 BC. AD
In the more immediate context of the book , other events play a strategic role. Politically, the military power of Assyria had collapsed in 626 BC. AD, and its capital, Nineveh was destroyed in 612 BC. BC by the Babylonians and Medes (see Nahum ) . The néobabylonien Empire showed its strength from the throne of Nabopolassar in 625 BC. AD Egypt under the leadership of Pharaoh Neco II wanted to conquer the territories as possible . Babylon crushed Assyria (before BC) and won a decisive victory against Egypt at Carchemish in 605 BC. BC, leaving no survivors , according to the Babylonian chronicles . Also in 605 BC. AD that Nebuchadnezzar began his conquest of Jerusalem and the deportation of its inhabitants , including Daniel (# Da 1:2 ) . In December 598 BC. BC, he besieged Jerusalem again , which fell on March 16 597 BC. AD He Jehoiachin prisoner , and a group of 10 000 people, including Ezekiel (# 2R 24:11-18 ) . The final destruction of Jerusalem and the conquest of Judah , and the third wave of deportation took place in 586 BC . AD
From a religious point of view, King Josiah (c. 640-609 BC.) Had implemented several reforms (see # 2Ch 34 ), but idolatry had so blinded the Judean population than it had only a superficial impact. The Egyptian army had killed King Josiah when he crossed the region in 609 BC. BC, and Judah then enferrèrent in sin that caused their judgment under Jehoahaz (609 BC.) , Jehoiakim ( Eliakim , 609-598 BC. ) Jehoiachin (before BC) and Zedekiah (before BC).
Considering the quality of life , Ezekiel and 10,000 compatriots living in exile in Babylon (# 2R 24:14 ) , but closer to that of settlers captive status. They could cultivate land in relatively favorable conditions ( # Jer 29). Ezekiel even had her own house (# Ez 3:24 ; # Ez 20:1).
False prophets exiles seduced by promising a quick return to Judah (# Ez 13:3 , Ezekiel 1:16 p.m. # , # Jer 29:1 ) . From 593-585 BC. BC, Ezekiel warned his compatriots that their beloved Jerusalem would be destroyed and their prolonged exile , so there was no hope of immediate return . In 585 BC. BC, a man who had escaped fled Jerusalem and joined the Babylonians the prophet to announce the fall of the city , which occurred in 586 BC . BC, about six months earlier (# Ez 33:21 ) . This information broke the false hopes of an imminent issue that fed the exiles , so that the prophecies of Ezekiel therefore focused on the future restoration of Israel, he returned to his land and the blessings of the messianic kingdom.
Historical and theological themes
The "glory of the Lord" is a central theme in Ezekiel, and the expression appears in Ez # 1:28 # Ez 3:12 , Ezekiel 3:23 # , # Eze 10:4 , Ez 10:18 # , # Ezekiel 11:23 , Ezekiel 43:4-5 # , # Eze 44:4 . The book vividly describes the disobedience of Israel and Judah , despite the goodness of God (ch. # Ez 1:23 ; . . Ez see ch # 16). It shows the desire of the Lord to see his people bear fruit he can bless . However, the guilty indulgence of Judah had opened the door to his judgment , as a vine that is burnt (ch. # Ez 1:15). There are many allusions to Israel's idolatry and its consequences , such as death Pelatiah (# Ez 11:13 ) , illustrating the tragedy all the people were astonished .
Many picturesque scenes illustrate spiritual principles Ezekiel eating a roll ( ch. # Ez 1:2 ), the faces of the four angels representing aspects of creation in which God reigns (# Ez 1:10 ), a " salon barber " (# Ez 5:1-4 ) graffiti on the temple walls reminding readers that God wanted for his house : a place devoted to holiness and not abominations (# Ez 8:10 ) coals symbolizing the fiery judgment (# Ez 10:2 , # Ez 10:7 ) .
Among the theological themes , the most important are the holiness and sovereignty of God. They are often referred to by the contrast between the shining light of the glory of the Lord and the background dark and despicable sin of Judah (# Ez 1:26-28 ; often to ch # Ez 8 . 1-11 : @ , # Ez 43:1-7 ) . They are also closely related to the objective pursued by God to a glorious triumph , where all " know that I am the Lord." This statement is a kind of divine monogram, signed by which God authenticates his works, and it appears more than 60 times , usually in connection with a judgment (# Ez 6:7 ; # Ez 7:4 ) , but sometimes after promises of restoration ( Ez 34:27 # , # Eze 36:11 , Ez 36:38 # , # Ez 39:28 ) .
The book has another characteristic to describe the ministry of angels behind the scenes to do the work of God ( Ezekiel 1:5-25 # , # Ez 10:1-22 ) . The reader also discovers that it considers every man be responsible to seek justice (# Ez 18:3-32 ), which is another important theme.
Ezekiel also refers to the sin of Israel ( Ezekiel 2:3-7 # , # Ez 8:9-10 ) and nations ( throughout the ch # Ez 25:1-32 : @ . ) The necessary anger God to sin (# Ez 7:1-8 ; # Ez 15:8 ) , the rejection of God that the people of Jerusalem are fleeing the besieged city ruse (# Ez 12:1-13 cf Jer # 39. :4 -7) and the fulfillment of the commitment made by God in the Abrahamic covenant (# Ge 12:1-3 ) with the restoration of the people from the patriarch of the promised land (ch. # Ez 34 , 36 -48 , . cf # Ge 12:7). God promised to preserve, among the Israelites , a faithful remnant through which he would accomplish the promises of restoration to honor his word.
Questions of Interpretation
Ezekiel widely used symbolic language , like Isaiah and Jeremiah , which raises the question whether some sections should be interpreted as figurative or literally taken Ezekiel has he actually been bound with ropes (# Ez 3:25 ) ? The Prophet he was physically transported to Jerusalem (# Ez 8:1-3 ) ? How to reconcile individual responsibility emphasized in ch . Ez # 18 with that of the wicked escape death (# Ez 14:22-23 ) while pious men died during an attack (# Ez 21:8-9 ) ? How does God allow the death of the wife of the faithful prophet (# Ez 24:15-27 ) ? When some judgments they intervene nations (ch. # Ez 25:1-32 : @ ) ? The temple c. # Ez 40:1-46 : @ he is a temple , and what form will it ? What relationship was there between the promises of the future of Israel and God's plan for the Church ? These will be discussed in the notes.
The book can be divided globally into two parts : judgment / reward and consolation / restore . A more detailed approach to discern four sections:
1 prophecies announcing the fall of Jerusalem (ch. # Ezekiel 1:1-24 : @ )
2 prophecies announcing the reward of neighboring nations (ch. # Ez 25:1-32 : @ ) , with a glimpse of the future of Israel (# Ez 28:25-26 ) restoration ;
3 transition (ch. # Ez 33 ), with instructions for a last call to repentance ;
4 of rich expectations , including that of the future restoration of Israel by God ( ch. # Ez 34:1-48 : @ ) .
I. Prophecies about the destruction of Jerusalem ( 1:1-24:27 )
A. Preparation and mission Ezekiel ( 1:1-3:27 )
1 . A divine apparition Ezekiel ( 1:1-28 )
2 . A divine mission to Ezekiel ( 2:1-3:27 )
B. Proclamation of the condemnation of Jerusalem ( 4:1-24:27 )
1 . The signs of the coming judgment ( 4:1-5:4 )
2 . Messages judgment ( 5:5-7:27 )
3 . The vision of abominations ( 8:1-11:25 )
4 . The reasons for judgment ( 12:1-24:27 )
II . Prophecies about the compensation of Nations ( 25:1-32:32 )
A. Ammon ( 25:1-7 )
B. Moab ( 25:8-11 )
C. Edom ( 25:12-14 )
D. The Philistines ( 25:15-17 )
E. Tyre ( 26:1-28:19 )
F. Sidon ( 28:20-24 )
Excursus . the restoration of Israel ( 28:25-26 )
G. Egypt ( 29:1-32:32 )
III . Provisions for repentance of Israel ( 33:1-33 )
IV . Prophecies about the restoration of Israel ( 34:1-48:35 )
A. Gathering of Israel in their land ( 34:1-37:28 )
1 . The promise of a true shepherd ( 34:1-31 )
2 . The punishment of the nations ( 35:1-36:7 )
3 . Restoration projects ( 36:8-38 )
4 . Images of the restoration ( 37:1-28 )
B. Eliminate enemies of Israel ( 38:1-39:29 )
1 . The attack of Gog against Israel ( 38:1-16 )
2 . God's intervention on behalf of Israel ( 38:17-39:29 )
C. Restoration of true worship in Israel ( 40:1-46:24 )
1 . A new temple ( 40:1-43:12 )
2 . A new worship ( 43:13-46:24 )
D. Redistribution of the country Israel ( 47:1-48:35 )
1 . Position torrent ( 47:1-12 )
2 . Units tribes ( 47:13-48:35 )